The essential oil of bergamot is particularly prone to counterfeiting being a precious item, produced in relatively small quantities. Generally counterfeiting means to “cut” the essence, adding distilled essences of poor quality and low cost, as bitter orange and bergamot mint and / or mixtures of terpenes, natural or synthetic, or “reconstruct” the essence from synthetic chemicals, coloring it with chlorophyll. Every year are marketed around the world three thousand tonnes of declared essence of bergamot, while the genuine essence of bergamot produced annually amounts to no more than one hundred tons.
The use of the analysis by gas chromatography with columns having a chiral stationary phase allows to analyze mixtures of enantiomers. The analysis of the enantiomeric distribution of various compounds, such as linalyl acetate and linalool, allows the characterization of the essence of bergamot according to the manufacturing process and allows to detect the possible counterfeiting essence.
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